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EMBOLISM

BULLET

  1. Missiles often attain more curious places by accident than they could by design.

    -Sir John Bland-Sutton in his classic paper “A lecture on missiles as emboli”. Lancet, i:773, 1919 (This interesting quote is reproduced in the paper“Rich N.M. et. al. Missile Emboli. The Journal of Trauma, 1978, Vol 18. No. 4, on page 237)

  2. The occurrence of free projectiles in the bloodstream, although doubtless very rare, has already become something more than a surgical curiosity, and its possibility may well be borne in mind by those who observe anomalous symptoms after gunshot wounds, especially when the projectile is not found.

    -Editorial: Migration of projectiles in the blood stream. Lancet, ii: 395, 1917 (This interesting quote is reproduced in the paper “Rich N.M. et. al. Missile Emboli. The Journal of Trauma, 1978, Vol 18. No. 4, on page 237)

  3. Understandably, the literature on bullet embolism consists of a number of single case reports.

    -Lam, C.R. and McIntyre, R. Air pistol injury of pulmonary artery and aorta: Report of a case with peripheral embolization and pellet and residual aorticopulmonary fistula. J. Thorac. Cardiovascular Surg., 59: 729, 1970 (This interesting quote is reproduced in the paper “Rich N.M. et. al. Missile Emboli. The Journal of Trauma, 1978, Vol 18. No. 4, on page 236)

  4. An aura of mystery and intrigue often surrounds these unusual lesions.

    -Norman M. Rich, in his paper “Rich N.M. et. al. Missile Emboli. The Journal of Trauma, 1978, Vol 18. No. 4, on page 236”

PULMONARY

  1. Pulmonary embolism is the most underdiagnosed cause of death, where no autopsy is performed.

    -Bernard Knight (Forensic Pathology, 2nd Edition, page 334)

EXHUMATION

  1. Those who arrange exhumations, and doubtless sleep through them, have always assumed that if timed at the crack of dawn an exhumation will be quiet, private affair.

    -Professor Keith Simpson, in his autobiography “Forty Years of Murder”, Grafton Books 1978, at page 234)

EXPERT TESTIMONY

  1. The role of the expert witness is not to provide the evidence which supports the case for the Crown nor for the defence, unless that opinion is objectively reached and has scientific vailidity.

    -Practice Guidelines of the Police Advisory Board in Forensic Pathology of the British Home Office (Quoted in Bernard Knight's Forensic Pathology, 2nd Edition, Preface)

  2. A good medical expert must serve but one client, and that client should be truth.

    -Erle Stanley Gardner

  3. If the law has made you a witness, remain a man of science; you have no victim to avenge or guilty or innocent person to ruin or save. You must bear testimony within the limits of science.

    --Dr. P.C.H. Brouardel( Late 19th century French Medico-Legist)(Reproduced in “Forensic Radiology” by B.G. Brogdon, at page 364. Also quoted in “The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology”, Vol 20, Number 1, March 1999 at page 17, where it is attributed to Paul H. Broussard, Chair of Forensic Medicine, Sorbonne, 1897)

  4. The conscience is a thousand witnesses.

    -Richard Taverner

  5. Let no man swear on oath falsely, even in a trifling matter, for he who swears on oath falsely, is lost in this world and after death.

    -Manu (Ancient Hindu Law giver)

  6. You can lead a jury to the truth, but you can’t make them believe it.

    -Herbert Leon Macdonell (Quoted at the opening page in his book “The Evidence never lies”)

  7. An expert, as the word imports, is one having had experience. No clearly defined rule is to be found in the books what constitutes an expert. Much depends upon the nature of the question in regard to which an opinion is asked.

    -Oil Co. v. Gilson, 63 Pa. St. 146, 150 (1869) (Quoted in “Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation” Ed. Stuart H. James, page 131)

  8. "..the thing from which the deduction is made must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs"

    -(Frye v. United States (1923), often known as "The Frye Standard". In this case, the scientific evidence being presented was the theory underlying lie-detector testing. It ultimately was not admitted and remains inadmissible to this day in law courts)

  9. "For gauging the scientific validity of evidence, it should be seen whether the technique in question can be or has been tested; whether the technique has been subjected to peer review and publication; its known or potential error rate; the existence of standards controlling its operation and whether the methodology in question has attracted widespread acceptance within the relevant scientific community."

    -US Supreme Court in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 U.S. 579, 113 S.C.T. 2786 (1993); popularly referred to as the “Daubert Standard”

  10. There is nothing worse than a pompous expert.

    -Judge Haskell M. Pitluck (Reproduced in “Forensic Radiology” by B.G. Brogdon, at page 372)

  11. Expert witnesses should refrain from conducting themselves as though their service is a contest between themselves and some other party.

    -Reproduced from the document entitled “Recommended Practices for Design Professionals Engaged as Experts in the Resolution of Construction Industry Disputes” prepared by The Association of Soil and Foundation Engineers (ASFE) (quoted on page 353 in the book “Forensic Engineering” by Kenneth L. Carper (CRC Press 1998))

  12. The witness must never be considered an advocate, and should always “call the shots as they are”.

    -Joseph S. Ward, P.E. (quoted on page 336 in Chapter 12 written by him on “The Engineer as Expert Witness” in the book “Forensic Engineering” by Kenneth L. Carper (CRC Press 1998))

  13. For every expert there is an equal and opposite expert.

    -Contributed by Mike Duxbury

  14. Direct questioning in the initial stages of a trial is like a walk in the park when compared with the antagonistic manner evident in cross examination.

    -Tom Bevel and Ross M. Gardner in “Bloodstain pattern analysis” CRC Press, 1997, page 271

  15. What the doctor puts into his report at the time of examination must be of sufficient resilience to survive intense cross-examination in the court room many months later.

    -Bernard Knight in “The Estimation of the Time Since Death in the Early Postmortem Period”, Edward Arnold, 1995, page 2